India has been an educational hub for centuries. From ancient to modern days, this country has been home to many renowned universities. The education system of India is mainly divided into 4 categories: pre-primary, primary, elementary, and secondary education, followed by higher studies.

The Pre-primary has the Lower and Upper kindergarten, where essential reading and writing skills are taught. Primary schooling consists of classes from 1st to 5th for students between the ages of six and eleven. 

The Secondary school children are between the age of twelve to fifteen, and the classes are ranked from six to In general, higher secondary school students are 16 years old or older. Higher Education in India aims to provide education specialising in a field, including many technical schools, colleges, and universities.

Current Issues in Education in India

Despite the country always emphasising education, one-third of the entire population still lacks literacy. The Indian population is rapidly growing. On the contrary, shortages of teachers, books, and other facilities and insufficient funds are primary issues.

Here are some issues with the Education system in India.

  • Expenditure on Education- The government of India needs to spend more to improve the education system.
  • Capacity Utilisation- The Indian school education system must focus on developing creative minds. Hence, it must emphasise practical learning among its students. 
  • Infrastructure facilities- Better infrastructure must be provided, especially in Government schools. The government is now focusing on digital learning, they must undertake steps to provide all necessary facilities in Government schools and rural areas.

The gross enrollment pattern, followed by the UN, must also be adopted by India.


A few solutions can help overcome the problems faced by the Indian Education System. 

(i) Innovation- India is now moving towards digital education, which will help in budding the innovative minds of students and the country's youth. This will bring a transformation in the Indian education system, and the authorities and government must encourage and boost the young minds to focus on overall development rather than just the book-learning. 

(ii) Quality of Education- There is a significant difference in the quality of education provided in the country's rural and urban areas. The education board must fill this gap and ensure everyone gets equal knowledge and opportunities to grow.

(iii) Making education affordable to all- The Government of India needs to focus on improving the infrastructure of government schools. On the other hand, various private institutions with better facilities demand international school fees in Bangalore. The government must address this disparity and make education affordable and accessible.

Schemes and Campaigns to boost Education System in India 

Below are some of the schemes introduced by the government to enhance the education system in India.

  • Mid-day meal scheme - This meal is provided to all children in government schools.
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao(Save Girl Child, Educate Girl Child) - The scheme promotes education for a girl child in India. This scheme has been beneficial as more girls are enrolled in schools nowadays. 
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan - Launched in 2001 to promote 'Education for all.” It ensures that every child between the ages of 6-14 gets an education.

Education is one of the most crucial aspects of a country’s growth. India has been a major country in terms of education. Though it needs a few improvements in modern times, continuous growth is inevitable. For adapting to the value of education, India is recognised as being the second-largest global hub for education.